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Libraries in the civilization of Iraq.

The Library’s definition of the ancient Iraqis: The library of ancient Iraqis means that the collection of clay tablets with literary, religious, historical and scientific texts in the building of the temple, palace or house of residence, where the collection of these panels can benefit priests or scribes Or pupils or some individuals who were on the side of knowledge
Reasons for the emergence of libraries:
1 – The writing of the important cultural achievements that led to the emergence of libraries and their development, as a result of the diversity of science and knowledge.
2. For the purpose of preserving historical, economic, social and religious codes and other texts such as correspondence and royal treaties in addition to the linguistic texts scattered in palaces and temples.
3. The appearance of libraries was an expected result of the nature of the material used in writing. The largest clay tablet was no more than 50 cm by 50 cm. Therefore, the epics and literary legends were written in the form of a series of clay tablets, Such as paving them in shelves or in pottery vessels.
4 – Lack of knowledge materials such as literary texts, religious and scientific and the desire to collect and save them to save them from loss
5 – Perhaps one of the most important reasons for the establishment of libraries were schools, the library was the main source of knowledge that the school to access the text of the texts in all aspects of different sciences.
6 – The emergence of specialization in the types of cognitive science may have made some intellectuals collect clay tablets to form special libraries with a specific specialty
7 – The literary taste of some rulers may have been behind the establishment of some libraries as is the case for the king (Ashurbanipal).
Methods of conservation of clay tablets in libraries:
A- Open Rack Method: In this method, shelves of milk are used, or in wood, which runs along the wall of the room or in part. Such shelves are familiar in ancient Iraq in all ages. For the library, however, (50 cm) and there is a wooden or wooden shelf that is usually adjacent to the wall of the room in the extension with the floor of the room and at most is 50 cm high and these shelves may have covered the upper surfaces with a rock or a ker to prevent the arrival of moisture to mud panels that were This also applies to archiving archives
B – the method of Quot: (Bath Houses) in relation to the shape that resembles almost pigeons, and this method is a set of loops that are organized in the form of rows in the walls of the library rooms and are thus part of the walls of the room and these works from The reeds may be used in the lining of these niches, which often take the shape of the rectangle or shape of the upper end is semi-circular
C-The method of storing the clay sheets was widely known. The excavations showed many pottery jars that contained clay slabs inside and through their texts we knew that they used baskets or other containers such as bags or pottery boxes. These clay plates are wrapped with a mattress or a piece of cloth to protect them. It is customary for a label to be placed inside the container, which is a small clay tablet that refers to the title of the subject represented by the clay slabs, such as the subject matter is literary, linguistic or religious. Move from place to place
Library administration: The person in charge of the administration of the library in Old Iraq was named PISAN-DUB-BA, the treasury director who was named Bakdiyya (rab gir ginakku), the director of the library. This official occupied a privileged position in the Assyrian court.
The temple libraries were probably run by a priest. The priest was the first educated man in the ancient Iraqi community. The priests were the ones who knew the secrets of the gods and were the ones who could solve them, so they had to carefully memorize the plates and reprint all the tablets Unread or broken with a new one
King Ashur Banipal Library This library is one of the most prominent examples of royal libraries found in the Assyrian Palace of Assyrian (Assyrian) from the modern Assyrian period (668-626 AD). The King was known for his love of culture, science and knowledge of all kinds. We have received many references indicating that he had received education since his childhood as a student at the hands of professors specialized in the field of science and knowledge when he was crown prince of his father (Asrhddon) for his numbers to take power in the future, so he often refers in his texts to his knowledge of reading and writing And his knowledge of reading Sumerian texts dating back thousands of years ago E, and made it all an intellectual property established a glorious kingdom.
By
Dr. Hussein Aliwi

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