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The concept of state and its development at Arabs before Islam

The earliest concept of the state before Islam was tribal identity, the individual belongs to the tribe. There was not a single political entity comprising the inhabitants of the peninsula, even the kingdoms that were there – with a few exceptions in the south – were founded on tribal bases. The tribe was the center of life on the peninsula, and the tribe had security and all rights related to social and economic aspects. The tribe does not have to be connected to blood. The tribe in general belongs to one ancestor due to its descent. But the association of blood was not a condition in belonging to the tribe. The tribe may include an unrelated person, known as a loyalty system in which the individual enjoys all the rights of other members of the tribe who have a blood connection.
 For example, we see that the race here, despite its importance, was not a decisive pillar in belonging, and belonging to Arabism as a university identity, as Dr. Jawad Ali says in his book (detailed in the history of the Arabs before Islam 1: 22-23) For Islam, identity was before that tribal identity.
“We do not know exactly when the term” Arabs “was used to denote a national meaning related to Arab sex, and the Holy Qur’an is the first source – and does not rise from Islam to a very long time – used In which the Arabic word is used to express clearly the Arab race. “
There was a great change in the concept of citizenship after the emergence of Islam, by the establishment of the city after the migration of the Prophet The ethnic groups and the old tribe on the peninsula united in a new identity belonging to the nation regardless of race, language or religion. The inhabitants of the city are Arabs, Jews, and others from Persia, Rom, and Habash, both Muslims and non-Muslims, and they all became citizens of Medina.
So we can know that concept
 Is a group of individuals who exercise their activity on a specific geographic region and are subject to a certain political system that handles the affairs of the state. The state supervises political, economic and social activities that aim at its advancement and prosperity and improve the standard of living of its members. The world is divided into a large group of countries,
In this sense, the concept of the state in general is the tribe that holds the legitimacy and under which the management of the helm of power and thus the question arises itself is the distinction between the concept of the State and the authority that runs the state and legislate laws and this in itself refers to tribal social custom in the enactment of laws and legislation According to the tribal standard.
The other side must be referred to as tribal nihilism which is the first nucleus of the concept of state and its emergence. As Ibn Khaldun said in the introduction, “The king and the general state are getting the kiss and the nervousness.” He also said, “The goal of the nobility is the king.”
This is evident in the fact that the Arabs before Islam did not have a state in the broader sense of the overall, but with the assets of the elements and the foundations of the tribal nervousness and the large number of individuals and the possession of the economic resource and the authority to legislate in the enactment of laws and political reality that allows them to control and concentration of influence All refers to Concept.
Also, it is worth mentioning that the settlement of some tribes in more stable areas to be transformed from the state of Bedouin urban and urban, so we find there are many Arab tribes have migrated from several regions and mention the migration of some tribes of the Arabian Peninsula to the Fertile Crescent specifically to be States And kingdoms have their own character whether political or social in the emerging states.
Dr. Leith Mahmoud Zouin

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