The dawn of the dynasties began in Iraq in about 2800 BC. And it lasted for six centuries, also known as the ancient Sumerian era or the era of the city states where the country has not yet united under one great kingdom. Scientists divide this time period from the history of Iraq into three periods, respectively:
Dawn of the first breeds (2800 – 2700) BC.
Dawn of the second dynasties (2700 – 2600 BC)
Dawn of the third dynasties (2600 – 2400 BC)
It is agreed among the majority of scholars of the present age that the Sumerians are the original inhabitants of Iraq, and that they were known to the owners of the slave civilization in central and southern Iraq and their lands extended south to the island of Delmon (Bahrain) in the present era before rising levels of the Arabian Gulf to reach Its current limits. The Sumerians, who are the oldest and most advanced civilization in the world, are languages known as Agglutinative. One of the characteristics of gluing is that it often integrates two words into a single word whose meaning is based on the meanings of the words in the composition, such as the lo, ie, the king (ie, the man), ie the great, The structure consists of the word E, the House and the Great Cal. Then the sentences are also composed by the way the pronouns and instruments are attached to the root of the verb so that all become one word.
Archaeologists divided the dawn of the dynasties into three phases: the first (2800 – 2700 BC), the second (2700 02600 BC) and the third
2600 – 2400 BC). Each of these three phases has its distinct characteristics. It can be said, however, that architecture has been cut off in this age, especially in the construction of palaces and temples. Contracts for the first time appeared in the building as well as the vaults as a means of roofing. The art of mining and metal casting, and the pieces of sculpture have moved away from progress. The writing has matured and spread throughout the Sumerian era. In the age of dawn, the dynasties recorded the official records and works of kings and princes and their relationship with other rulers. As well as public affairs such as commercial transactions, personal status, correspondence, literature and legends as well as religious affairs and worship
The temples of this age are built near the zakra, and they are a landfill of the ziggurat, or adopted in a special place far from the ziggurat. It is an independent temple devoted to the worship of a god or a king of deceived kings. In regular forms, the details are square or rectangular, most often surrounded by a huge wall that turns towards the four sides. The interior of the temple is composed of a small open courtyard surrounded by a row or two rows of rooms that were used to house the priests and store the vows of the temple and its destinations. The fourth side of the square, opposite the entrance from the far side, was filled with two rectangular rooms designed by a cross-section entering from one to the other called the first one (Ante Cella), a room to enter the second room, which includes the Statue of God (Cella). Therefore, the temples of this period belong to the temples with the right axis (Main Axes), which means that the statue of the god can be seen from the entrance to the temple directly, and the most famous temples of the temple of God (Sun) in the city of Ur.
(2): – Shortages:
The kings of this age (the era of resurrection) were not their own palace, and their architectural features were not an expression of the concept of imperial ownership and thought, as were the Akkadian palaces. The kings of this era preferred to approach the gods and bring goodness to other ideas. The palaces of their own idea are simple administrative buildings, characterized by regular shapes that harmonize the parts, occupy a small area of the earth and have regular forms, rectangular or square, whose architectural layout is based on the architectural system inherited from previous eras. It consists of a number of open squares surrounded by each The four sides have a number of vaulted rooms and times whose floors are lined with bricks and have been combined into a special system to form a complex multi-utility building surrounded by weak fences as they were prepared for the king’s reception to the masses of people.